Photography - overview

        The word photography comes from two words in the Greek language, the word 'photo' which means 'light' and the word 'graphein' which means 'to draw' so together literally means 'to draw with Streamate light.' This is a very accurate term as the process it refers to is that of capturing an image onto a light sensitive material. The term 'Jasmin Live photography' was first coined by Sir John Herschel in 1839 but the history of photography dates much further back and the first actual photograph was taken in 1826 by Joseph Niepce using a live jasmin technique he called 'heliography.'

        Joseph Niepce may have taken the first photograph but it was thanks to Louis Daguerre who had been experimenting with ways to permanently capture jasmincams images since 1789. Louis Daguerre was a set painter for the Opera and a chemist. He was fascinated by the idea of being able to capture the beautiful jasminelive scenes he saw when he witnessed the operas performed live on stage. He worked with Niepce and found that mixing silver with chalk made a solution that would darken when exposed to jasmin cam light. After Niepce died in 1833 Daguerre carried on and developed a better way of permanently fixing the image by immersing the photographic plate in salt. He called his technique 'daguerreotype' and sold the patent for it to the French government who made it public and made photography very popular. By 1850 there were around 70 Daquerreotype Studios in New York alone.

        The draw back of this technique was that there was no way of duplicating the images apart from taking two photographs at the same time with two cameras. Then around 1835 an inventor called William Henry Fox Talbot invented the Calotype. This technique involved paper sheets being covered with silver chloride to produce negatives from which duplicate prints could be made. However Talbot patented this process which limited it popularity as people where not free to use it.

        Process times at this stage were still very slow and it was not until we entered the next era of photography in 1851 with the invention of the Collodion process that things would speed up. The Collodion process was invented by the English sculptor Frederick Scott Archer and involved using a glass wet plate rather than paper to capture a negative. This made for much more detailed photographs and the exposure time was only a fracture of the time it had taken before.

        These advances opened the world of photography up to portraits rather than just architectural images however the wet plate method meant that photographers would need to carry a portable darkroom around to be able to develop the images before they dried. This was obviously not very convenient for taking pictures outside of a studio and lead the way for the invention in 1879 of the dry plate which meant that negatives could be stored and processed at a later date. The dry plate absorbed light much more quickly and meant that cameras could now be hand held and more like the cameras we know today.

Terms from A to Z in photography


The inability of a lens to produce a true image, particularly at the edge of a photograph. Usually, the more expensive the lens, the better its optical quality and the fewer aberrations.

Angle of View

The area of a scene that a lens can cover. The focal length of the lens determines the angle of view. A wide-angle (short-focal-length) lens includes more of a scene than a standard (normal-focal-length) lens or telephoto (long-focal-length) lens. Angle of view is basically the angle at which light rays can pass through the lens to produce an image on the film.


The aperture is the opening formed by the blades of the iris or diaphragm in the lens, through which light passes to expose the film. Aperture size is usually given in f-numbers, the larger the number, the smaller the opening. Aperture size together with shutter speed determine the amount of light falling on the film (exposure). The aperture is sometimes called the "stop".

Aspherical lens

A lens with a curved, non-spherical surface. Used to reduce aberrations and achieve a more compact lens size. With a spherical lens, rays travelling from the lens periphery create the image before the ideal focal point and give a blurred image centre. With an aspherical lens, even the rays travelling from the lens periphery converge at the ideal focal point, thus producing a sharp image.

Chromatic aberration

The inability of a lens to bring all light wavelengths (particularly red & blue) into the same plane of focus, thus causing overall blur. Usually found in regular large-aperture telephoto and super-telephoto lenses. Not improved by reducing aperture size. Can be corrected with low dispersion (ED, LD SD) glass.

Colour temperature

A method of expressing the colour content and quality of light and measured in Kelvin (K). "Photographic daylight" has a colour temperature of about 5500K. Photographic tungsten lights have colour temperatures of 3200K to 3400K depending on their construction.

Depth of Field

The distance between the nearest and furthest objects in a photograph that are considered to be acceptably sharp. Dependant on aperture, focal length and focused distance. The smaller the aperture, the wider the lens and the further the focused distance, giving a greater depth of field and vice versa.

Electronic flash

Designed to provide light where the lighting on the scene is insufficient. Electronic flash requires high voltage, usually obtained through batteries and a voltage-multiplying circuit which discharge a brief, intensive burst. Generally considered to have the same photographic effect as daylight. Modern flash units have multiple TTL exposure control functions and auto focus control.

F-numbers or F-stops

Numbers on the lens aperture ring and the camera's LCD (where applicable) that indicate the size of lens aperture. The lower the number the larger the aperture. As the scale rises, each number is multiplied by a factor of 1.4. Standard numbers are 1.0,1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, etc., each change resulting in a doubling or halving of the amount of light transmitted by the lens to the film.

Film Speed

ISO stands for International Standards Organization and numbers such as ISO 100 or ISO 400 etc. give the sensitivity of film to light. The higher the number, the more sensitive or faster the film. Basically, the slower the film (low ISO No.) the sharper and clearer the photograph. Grainy effects can be achieved with fast films (high ISO No.).

Flash sync speed

Exposure time with a focal-plane shutter is measured from the moment the first curtain is released until the moment the second curtain is released. The instant the first curtain closes, the electrical contacts for X sync close and instantly fire the flash.

Focal Length

The distance from the film to the optical centre of the lens when the lens is focused on infinity. Focal length on most adjustable cameras is marked in millimetres on the lens mount. On 35mm-format cameras, lenses with a focal length of 50mm are called normal or standard lenses. Lenses of 35mm or less are called wide angle lenses and lenses of 85mm or more are called telephoto lenses. Lenses which allow varying focal lengths without changing focus are called zoom lenses.


One or more pieces of optical glass or similar material designed to collect and transfer rays of light to form a sharp image on film, paper or a projection screen. In practical photography, compound lenses made of a number of elements of different types of glass are used. This enables the manufacturer to correct most of the faults (aberrations) found in simple lenses and provide images that are sharp across the whole picture.

Lens Speed

The largest aperture(smallest F-stop) at which a lens can be set. Fast lenses transmit more light and have larger openings than slow lenses. Determined by the maximum aperture in relation to focal length. Lens speed is relative: a 400 mm lens with a maximum aperture of F/3.5 is considered extremely fast, while a 28mm F/3.5 lens is considered to be quite slow.


Perspective is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional scene. In photography this can be achieved by viewing 3-D objects from an angle rather than head-on. A photograph is also given perspective if there are objects in the foreground, middle distance and background, giving the whole scene "depth".

Single-Lens-Reflex (SLR) Camera

Light entering the camera through the lens is reflected up by a mirror behind the lens onto a ground glass screen above. This screen is viewed through the viewfinder and a glass pentaprism which turns the image the correct way up. Other camera functions such as light metering and flash control also operate through the camera lens.

Zoom Lens

A lens which can be adjusted to a wide range of focal lengths without a change in focus, thus an alternative for a number of individual lenses of various focal lengths. A difficult type of lens to design and manufacture, but very useful for the photographer who likes to travel light.

Becoming a good photographer

        So you want to be a photographer. Well, you've got a long road ahead of you. Photography is one of the most competitive fields in the world. It doesn't matter where you live or what language you speak. Anyone with a camera can be a photographer, which makes the competition fierce. So if photography is something you have your heart set on doing, then there are a few things you're going to need to know. This list is by no means exhaustive, but it will give you a start.

        The first thing you absolutely must do is decide what field of photography you want to get into. There is fashion photography, sports photography, glamour photography, studio photography, outdoor photography, children's photography and the list goes on and on. The market for each of these and many other types is wide open. And with those wide open markets also comes a lot of competition. Deciding on which field you want to get into should not be based on the path of least resistance. There is no such thing. Pursue the path that you have the most passion for.

        The next thing you have to do is get all the equipment that you're going to need. This is going to vary depending on what kind of field you want to get into. For example, if you're planning to become a photographer who specializes in stock car racing, then you are going to need a lot of equipment for taking high speed photos. The good news is that you're not going to have to spend a lot of money on lighting since these photos will be taken outdoors. Conversely, if you're planning to photograph fashion models, lighting is going to be critical to your photos and your lighting equipment expense is going to be quite high.

        The next thing you're going to need to do is advertise. You'll have to print out business cards, take out ads in magazines and newspapers and more or less get the word out that you exist. If you're hoping to break into the field taking photos for a magazine like Playboy, then you're going to have to first get some private work photographing models in order to submit these photos to the magazine itself. Before you do that though, you're going to have to write to the magazine for permission to send photos. Most publications do not accept unsolicited material.

        If you're planning on opening up a studio to take children's photos then you're going to need to lease a building. It doesn't have to be anything large but it should be in a visible part of town with a lot of other businesses. Visibility is half the battle won.

        Finally, you're going to have to take lots of photos, especially if you want to build a reputation for yourself. You'll want to put together a portfolio of your work so that you can bring it around with you. Again, this is going to depend on what field you want to get into, whether it be freelancing for a magazine, setting up your own shop, or working for somebody else, which is usually a good way to break in.

        The world of photography is wide open. There are many options to each aspiring photographer. So pick a game plan and stick to it. With patience and perseverance, you'll eventually get to where you want to be.

Different Kinds of Photography

Since the time of Stone Age Man, when images of the animals and men hunting were first used to decorate the walls of cave, we have been fascinated by the captured image. People all over the world take pictures of themselves, relatives and friends, pets and landscapes whether or not there is a particular circumstance or reason for doing so. But how much do we actually know when it comes to photography? Below are some of the different kinds of Vimax pills photography that will help us learn more about the different ways of taking photographs.

Amateur Photography has grown in recent years with the advent of cheep digital cameras and this digital photography that has become easily accessible to the amateur due to the low cost of both equipment and reproduction of the images, that we will have a brief look at in this article.

Black and White or Monochrome Photography

The first are to consider is black and white or monochrome photography. This is not simply presenting an image in black and white. Black and white photography explores the contour and character, tone and texture, the aesthetic art and beauty of the subject. The two components of black and white photography that give depth and feeling to the image are the shadows and highlights, if we learn to use them then we can create great images.

Colour sometimes obscures the texture and form of subjects, it draws our attention the way flowers attract insects and birds, and ripe fruit catches your eye on a tree. Sometimes that's what we want, but black and white can emphasise the texture of the subject.

The variety of ways that different colours convert to different greys means that you can have quite fine control over just what parts of your picture will be light and dark, in addition to lighting levels. The absence of light can be as important as the highlights. Good deep shadows can give a depth and solidity to an image. It allows us to separate out the effects of colour and luminosity, put another way black and white photography allows us to use colour more effectively.

Action Photography

Action Photography may be where the photographer takes pictures of sporting event, or of boys playing, anything intact where there is movement. Either set the shutter speed to freeze the action or try a slower shutter speed to blur the movement. This effect can create the sense of drama and movement. If the subject is moving across the frame try to track the subject, this is called panning, the effect once perfected is the subject is sharp but the background has the movement blur giving the impression of speed.

Shooting Action Shots, people and animals in motion, and other moving objects create wonderful photo opportunities. However, capturing fast action on a digital camera can be challenging.

Certain settings on many digital cameras allow photographers to photograph action in a point-and-shoot mode specifically designed for moving subjects. Other times it is up to the photographer to manipulate the digital camera to achieve the best possible photos.

Digital cameras with less shutter lag capture better action shots. Regardless of your camera's specifications, you can further minimize shutter lag by pre-focusing before you snap the picture. To do this, hold down the shutter button halfway and then once the camera has focused; press it down all the way to take the shot.

Fast shutter speed allows photographers to capture great shots of moving subjects. If your digital camera supports a slower shutter speed, it is still possible for you to shoot some wonderful action shots. It may take some practice, but try panning the camera, keeping the lens on the subject's action.

Shoot in continuous mode if it is available to you. You might feel like the paparazzi when you first get started, but you will love how this quick mode doesn't let you miss a shot! Digital cameras that support continuous shooting work nicely for action shots because they are able to write all the photos to memory at the same time instead of one by one.

Anticipate ction and position yourself accordingly. If you are shooting sports, camp out by the goal line or find a good location where you can get clear shots of the athletes.

Invest in a good lens. Many action shots will benefit most from digital camera with a 200mm lens, though you can interchange lenses for different effects. Zoom lenses work wonders for sports action shots.

Aerial Photography

Aerial Photography is best if you want to photograph a landscape or cityscape. Sadly we can't all afford to have our own helicopter, but great effects can be achieved from the top of tall buildings, bridges or mountains. So although true photography may be out of reach, we can still have the illusion of aerial photography.

Travel Photography

Travel Photography is not just about your holiday snaps. It is about capturing something of the feel, the emotion, the essence of a site. It is about telling the story of the people and the landscape; it captures the mood and the setting. But you don't need expensive foreign holidays; travel photography can be your record of the next town or city or even neighbourhood. As a is an exciting local city for me to explore, but with the advantage that it is not far to travel to.

When photographing people in their local context there are a number of techniques that I try to use but keep in mind the principle of treating people with respect.

I've already talked about making shots contextual but one great way to do this is to think about what's in the background behind the people you're photographing. Ideally you want something that's not too distracting but that adds to the context of the place you're shooting in. Another technique for shooting shots of people that ignores the 'contextual' rule is to find a brightly lit position with a dark background. This can really help the face you're shooting to pop out and capture the viewer's attention.

Some of the best shots I've taken of people while traveling have been where I've tightly frames people's faces. This means either getting in close to the person or having and using a good zoom lens.

Go for natural (un-posed shots) - While sometimes the posed shots can work quite well they can also lack a certain authenticity. Photograph your subject doing something from their normal daily life, at work, the marketplace, home, or just crossing the street etc.

Most of the shots I've taken of people over the years while traveling have been of single subjects alone in the shot. This is partly just my style but is something I've become quite aware of in the last few months. Adding a second person into an image takes a photo into a different place. No longer is the shot just about a person and their environment but it somehow becomes relational. The viewer of the photo begins to wonder about the relationship and a new layer is added to your image.

Quite often it's the shots of people dressed in national costume that tend to attract photographers when traveling. While these shots can be very effective I wonder if they are always really representative of a culture. Quite often these people have dressed up especially for a show or tourist attraction and the majority of people in that country look quite different. Mix up the types, gender and ages of the people you take photos of and you can end up with a very effective collage of faces of a country.

It goes against the nature of most travel photography which is usually very fast and spontaneous, but if you can spend time with people, if you have the opportunity to sit with a person for a longer period of time and photograph them in a more extended manner this enables you to tell the story of the individual and can lead to some wonderful sequences of shots using different photographic techniques, lenses and situations, while the person becomes more relaxed around the camera.

Keep your camera to the eye for taking those spontaneous shots between the more posed ones. It's amazing what images that you can find when the person isn't 'ready' for you to shoot. These shots often include people interacting with others or expressing true emotion. I find setting my camera to continuous shooting mode often leads to some wonderful candid shots. If conditions permit don't replace your lens cap until you pack your camera away.

When it comes to choosing lens, I find that a focal length between 24mm and 135mm is a good range to work with. Going for wide angle lenses can also produce interesting shots but you will often find that they do distort your subject's face a little. Choosing a longer focal length can be useful for putting your subjects a little more at ease.

Underwater Photography

Underwater Photography has become more accessible with the advent of cheep underwater cameras. Whether you intend to take photograph in a pool, lake, river, or the sea underwater photography can be one of the most exciting and rewarding things to do.

The difficulties you encounter when in shooting underwater can be summed up in one word, "limitation." Communication and travel below the surface are limited. Natural light and visibility are limited. How you tackle these limitations depends on your skill underwater and your photographic equipment.

However the most important advice you can receive has little to do with photography, and everything to do with your safety. A watery environment can be a dangerous one, even if it is a swimming pool. No photograph is worth your life. Depending on the type of underwater photography you wish to practise, you must first acquire the appropriate specialised knowledge and training, and obtain certification from a qualified instructor. This applies to every aspect of underwater activity, from basic swimming skills to advanced sub aqua diving techniques.

This list is by no means exhaustive; they are just some of the various types of photography you can discover. There are so many other forms of photography from infrared to medical, street, landscape, portrait, macro and Panoramic photography. Photographic work can be divided into dozens of categories, many with lots of sub-categories. But for now, just go and have fun with your camera and discover the joy of photographing you chosen subject!

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